- The endocannabinoid system is a naturally forming system found mammalian species
- And, it’s exists through all stages of human life
- Its also a complex bio system, the bodies healing system. The endocannabinoid system is responsible for regulating and stimulating pain. Also it helps us to sleep, and stimulates our appetite. As well as playing an important role in the development of cells and a host of mediating and restorative practices
- Equally important to remember. Toxins AND pollutants ALSO emotional stress, AS WELL AS junk food and prescriptions are the top contributors to a dysfunctional ECS.
(B.) – Receptors & Endocannabinoid system
Are a key component of the ECS. Ligands bind to the receptors and initiate an action call endocannabinoid. Receptors are vastly distributed throughout the body (inside and out). The receptors all have unique, but distinct roles. There are numerous ongoing studies into the receptors and the vital roles they play.
(C.) – Cannabinoids & Endocannabinoid system
Are categorised in the following 1. medicinal 2. recreational 3. plant based 4. Body made 5. synthetic – delta9 THC -cannabidiolic acid CBDA – CBD cannabidol -cannabinol (CBN) -cannabigerol (CBG) – cannabichrome (CBC) – tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV)
(D.) – Terpenes & Endocannabinoid system
Are a large class of organic oils. Produced in almost all plants. They contain strong aroma’s in order to protect itself from predators, UV rays, diseases.
Secreted in the same glands that produce cannabinoids they colour plant varieties.
The aromatic oils give the plant a distinctive flavour for example citrus, berry, mint, and pine.
Some terpenes promote relaxation and stress relief. Mycrene
Others like terpinolene promote focus and acuity
Terpenes may change in the presence of other compounds. More research is needed to understand each terpenes effect when used in harmony with others
- Limonene – citrus – anti-depressant – stress relief – weight management
- Caryophyllene – hoppy – anti-depressant – stress relief – weight management
- Linalool -floral – pain relief – aides sleep -anti inflammatory
- Alpha pinene – Pine – energy booster – aids memory – helps asthma
- Eucalyptol – spicy – analgesic cough – suppressants, anti-bacterial
- Myrcene – musky – analgesic, cough suppressant and anti-bacterial
- Camphene – piney tones – anti fungal, anti – oxidant, anti-oxidant
(E.) – Flavonoids & Endocannabinoid system
Are a class of polyphenolic plant and fungal secondary metabolites. Thought to provide health benefits through cell signalling pathways and anti-oxidant effects. Found in a variety of fruit and veg / water soluble.
There are 20 flavonoids in cannabis – these account for 10% of the total number of compounds in cannabis.
Studies and tests have shown that benefits include anti -oxidant, inflammatory, cancer, fungal, bacterial and allergic
Quercetin – Apigenin – Cannaflavin – Silymarin – Kaempferol
Flavonoids from the Latin word Flavus referencing the colour
Primary function is to provide colour pigmentation to the plant
Flavonoids protect plants from UV Rays, diseases and predators
Vastly understudied area.
CBD modulates the effects of THC at the blood brain barrier.
CB1 + CB2 behave as endogenous cannabinoids having a low to high efficacy for stimulating CB1 receptors in the brain and CB2 receptors in the periphery.
CB1 functions mainly through modulation of control and peripheral neurotransmitter release, activation of CB2 elicits direct anti-inflammatory effects in target cells.
This includes the reduction in cytokine matrix metal proteinase production modulation of adhesion. And migration but also induction of apoptosis
CB1 concentrated in the brain and central nervous system and is present in nerves system, also present in nerves and organs
CB2 mostly in the peripheral organs especially associated with the immune system
GPR55 is a putative receptor of the ECS, a type 3 cannabinoid receptor. Under investigation as an attractive target of drug development for inflammatory diseases
Its widely distributed in the brain and peripheral tissues. In particular it found in the cerebellum, jejunum, and ileum. It has emerged as a regulator of multi biological actions.
Lysophosphatidylinositol or LPI : generally accepted as the endogenous ligand of GPR55
GPR18 found primarily in bone marrow, spleen lymph nodes and to a lesser extent the testes.
GPR119 receptors are found predominantly in the pancreas and to a lesser extent in the intestinal tract.
TRVP1 – transient receptor potential vanilloid. Causes white fat cells to start burning energy instead of storing it which in theory should cause weight loss. It mediates the anti-hyper analgesic effects
Anandamide is generally accepted as the endogenous ligand of TRVP1. TRVP1 modulates by cannabinoids, this might be explicitly important since these receptors not only support pain sensation but also support inflammation.
TRVP2 – concentrated in the skin, muscle, kidney, stomach and lungs.
PPAR – peroxisome proliferator activated receptor. Studies have shown it mediates some but not all of analgesic neuroprotective, neuronal function. Modulates anti – inflammatory, metabolic, anti-tumour, gastrotestinal and cardiovascular effects of cannabinoids. Often in conjunction with activation on the more traditional sights such as CB1+CB2 and TRVP ion channel.
PPAR also mediate some of the effects of endocannabinoid degradation.
Y1 is expressed virtually in all tissues including heart, muscle, colon, kidney, pancreas and spleen.
Y2 expressed mainly in adipose tissue -30 amino acids longer.
Y3 expressed in macrophages, large intestine, and white adipose tissue.
The physiological aspects of CBD – Hemp – and cannabis products respond to the many receptors in our ECS, mimicking the body’s natural endocannabinoids and more.
In addition, the receptors respond to the phtyocannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, amino acids, proteins found in numerous plants.
These compounds are all important in restoring, maintaining and nourishing the ECS.
The tools for looking after the ECS are clean eating, detoxing, using herbs and spices, cannabametic activity, and healthy relationships, using CBDa and THCA.
Available in many forms’ tinctures, balms, heated, raw, edibles, each form of consumption has its own unique benefits – each form provides different cannabinoids to the ECS
- Oils – tinctures and sprays are placed under the tongue for sublingual.
- vaping or dabbing – inhaled straight into the lung for a short quick burst of CBD.
- water soluble forms – are rapidly absorbed into the blood stream through the stomach.
- edibles – and are passed through the intestine and absorbed slower than the other forms.
- Similarly balms and oils – are also applied to the skin for dermal absorption.
Research has validated “ingestion” as being the most efficient way to consume hemp.
(L.) -ECS regulates the following.
Dopamine – confers motivational salience – Signals perceived motivational prominence of an outcome. (the desirability of aversiveness)
Serotonin – neurotransmitter 5HT – found in nerves and cells – important when it comes to brain function.
Oxytocin – produced in the hypothalamus – love and cuddle hormone.
Cortisol built in alarm body’s main stress hormone.
Insulin absorbs sugar from the blood stream – very important hormone.
Terpenes in our Edibles
Firstly, Alpha pinene -anti-inflammatory properties and is a memory booster.
Secondly, Beta pinene -bronchodilator + anti -anxiety + maybe help with short term memory impairment associated with THC.
Thirdly, Limonene elevates mood, relieves stress, has anti-fungal and anti-bacterial properties, can reduce heartburn and gastric reflux it aids absorption of other terpenes by way of skin mucous membrane and digestive tract. ***
Fourthly, Eucalyptol – helps with inflammation – causing pain respiratory diseases, pancreatitis. Similarly it is an antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-cancer and has anti-fungal properties. It can also enhance memory while boosting cognitive energy .**
Fifthly, Isopulegol characterized by its minty aroma. Also found in geranium and lemongrass -pre-cursor for menthol. Equally, studies have shown it has anti-viral, anti-inflammatory and gastro -protective properties.******
Sixth, Geraniol – has positive medicinal uses including anti-bacterial, anti-septic, anti- inflammatory, anti- ulcer activity, neuro -protective and anti-oxidant properties. *****
Seventh, Beta Caryophyllene – relieves pain, improves mood, and subsequently has anti- microbial and anti-bacterial properties, can prevent Alzheimer’s and is anti- inflammatory. *******
Eight, Caryophyllene oxide – anti-oxidant, anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory properties.***
Finally, Alpha-Humelene – supresses appetite and is anti-bacterial.